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domingo, 13 de noviembre de 2011

Handbook Of Operational Amplifier Applications

Handbook Of Operational Amplifier Applications
Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown


Originally, the term, “Operational Amplifier,” was used in the computing field to describe amplifiers that performed various mathematical operations. It was found that the application of negative feedback around a high gain DC amplifier would produce a circuit with a precise gain characteristic that depended only on the feedback used. By the proper selection of feedback components, operational amplifier circuits could be used to add, subtract, average, integrate, and differentiate.


INDICE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CIRCUITS AND ANALYSES USING THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER.
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
  • FREQUENCY DEPENDENT PROPERTIES
  • BODE PLOTS AND BASIC PRACTICAL CIRCUITRY
  • OTHER IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
  • VOLTAGE DETECTORS AND COMPARATORS
  • THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
  • VOLTAGE AND CURRENT REFERENCES
  • THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER
  • THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER 
  • INTEGRATORS.
  • PRACTICAL INTEGRATORS.
  • DIFFERENTIATORS
  • THE VOLTAGE SUMMER.
  • THE DIFFERENTIAL INPUT AMPLIFIER
  • THE DIFFERENTIAL (BALANCED) OUTPUT AMPLIFIER DC AMPLIFIERS
  • AC AMPLIFIERS
  • CURRENT OUTPUT DEVICES
  • OSCILLATORS AND MULTI VIBRATORS
  • PHASE LEAD AND LAG NETWORKS
  • ADDITIONAL CIRCUITS
  • SELECTING THE PROPER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
  • References.

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  • INTRODUCTION. Computation Control Instrumentation. The Feedback Technique. Notation and Terminology. Input Terminals. Output Terminals. Power Connections. Summary of Notation. Electrical Circuit Models. Circuit Notation. The Ideal Operational Amplifier. Defining the Ideal Operational Amplifier. A Summing Point Restraint.
  • CIRCUITS AND ANALYSES USING THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER. The Desirability of Feedback. Two Important Feedback Circuits. Voltage Follower. Non-Inverting Amplifier. INVERTING AMPLIFIER. Intuitive Analysis Techniques. Current Output. Reactive Elements. Integrator. Differentiator. Voltage Adder. Scaling Summer. Combining Circuit Functions. Differential Input Amplifier. Balanced Amplifier. Ideal-Real Comparison.
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. Open Loop Characteristics. Open Loop Operation. Output Limiting.
  • FREQUENCY DEPENDENT PROPERTIES. Introduction. Open Loop Gain and the Bode Plot. Bode Plot Construction. Closed Loop Gain. Stability. Compensation. Compensation Changes. Bandwidth. Loop Gain. The Significance of Loop Gain.
  • BODE PLOTS AND BASIC PRACTICAL CIRCUITRY. Voltage Follower. X1000 Amplifier. Differentiator. INTEGRATOR.
  • OTHER IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. Summing Point Restraints. Closed Loop Impedance Levels. Output Impedance. Input Impedance. Differential Inputs and Common Mode Rejection. The Common Mode Voltage Limit. Offset. Drift. Capacitive Loading.
  • VOLTAGE DETECTORS AND COMPARATORS. Voltage Limiting Operational Amplifiers.
  • THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER. BUFFERS AND ISOLATION AMPLIFIERS. Inverting Buffer Adjustable Gain. Balanced Output.
  • VOLTAGE AND CURRENT REFERENCES. Isolated Standard Cell. Constant Current Generator. Buffer Variation. Presettable Voltage Source. Reference Voltage Supply.
  • THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER.
  • THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER.
  • INTEGRATORS.
  • PRACTICAL INTEGRATORS. Simple Integrators. Summing Integrator. Double Integrator. Differential Integrator. AC Integrator. Augmenting Integrator.
  • DIFFERENTIATORS. With “Stop”. Low Noise. Augmented Differentiator.
  • THE VOLTAGE SUMMER. SUMMING AND AVERAGING AMPLIFIERS. Adder. Scaling Adder. Direct Addition. Averager. Weighted Average.
  • THE DIFFERENTIAL INPUT AMPLIFIER. Adder-Subtractor or Floating Input Combiner. THE DIFFERENTIAL (BALANCED) OUTPUT AMPLIFIER DC AMPLIFIERS. Simple Inverting sign changing amplifier. Chopper Stabilized. Simple Gain Control. Linear Gain Control. Simple Non-Inverting. Power Booster. Differential Output. Gain Control. Inverting Gain Control. DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS. Subtractor. Difference Amplifier. Common Mode Rejection. Differential Input-Output.
  • AC AMPLIFIERS. DC Amplifiers with Blocking Capacitors. Simple Amplifier. Single Supply. Non-Inverting. Double Rolloff. AC Preamplifier.
  • CURRENT OUTPUT DEVICES. Feedback Loop. Simple Meter Amplifier. Meter Amplifier. Current Injector. Linear Current Source. Deflection Coil Driver.
  • OSCILLATORS AND MULTI VIBRATORS. Simple Oscillator. Wien Bridge Oscillator.
  • PHASE LEAD AND LAG NETWORKS. Lag Element. Adjustable Lag. Lag value linear with R setting. Adjustable Lead. Lead-Lag. Time Delay.
  • ADDITIONAL CIRCUITS. Absolute Value. Peak Follower. Precision Rectifier. AC to DC Converter. Full Wave Rectifier. Rate Limiter. Time Delay. Selective Amplifier.
  • SECTION III: SELECTING THE PROPER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER. Avoid Closed Loop vs. Open Loop Confusion. Selection Check List. Assistance Available from Texas Instruments.
  • References.



Manual De Aplicaciones Del Amplificador Operacional

Originalmente, el término "amplificador operacional", fue utilizado en el campo de la informática para describir los amplificadores que realiza diversas operaciones matemáticas. Se encontró que la aplicación de la retroalimentación negativa en torno a un amplificador de ganancia DC de alta se produce un circuito con una característica de ganancia precisa que sólo dependía de la información utilizada. Con una adecuada selección de los componentes de información, circuitos de amplificador operacional podría ser utilizado para sumar, restar, promediar, integrar y diferenciar.

INDICE
  • Introducción
  • Circuitos Y Análisis Usando El Amplificador Operacional Ideal.
  • Características De La Práctica De Amplificadores Operacionales
  • Propiedades Que Depende De La Frecuencia
  • Bode Y Los Circuitos De Prácticas Básicas
  • Otras Propiedades Importantes De Los Amplificadores Operacionales
  • Detectores De Tensión Y Comparadores
  • El Seguidor De Tensión
  • Referencias De Tensión Y Corriente
  • El Amplificador No Inversor
  • Amplificador Inversor
  • Integradores.
  • Práctica Con Integradores.
  • Diferenciadores
  • Seguidor De Tensión.
  • Amplificador De Entrada Diferencial
  • Diferencial (Balanceado) Salida De Los Amplificadores De Cc Amplificador
  • Ac Amplificadores
  • Dispositivos De Salida Actual
  • Osciladores Y Vibradores Múltiples
  • Fase De Plomo Y Redes De Lag
  • Circuitos Adicionales
  • Selección Del Amplificador Operacional Adecuado
  • Referencias.

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