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sábado, 12 de noviembre de 2011

Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide

Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide
Bruce Carter, Ron Mancini
Texas Instruments


The operational amplifier (?op amp?) is the most versatile and widely used type of analog IC, used in audio and voltage amplifiers, signal conditioners, signal converters, oscillators, and analog computing systems. Almost every electronic device uses at least one op amp. This book is Texas Instruments’ complete professional-level tutorial and reference to operational amplifier theory and applications. Among the topics covered are basic op amp physics (including reviews of current and voltage division, Thevenin’s theorem, and transistor models), idealized op amp operation and configuration, feedback theory and methods, single and dual supply operation, understanding op amp parameters, minimizing noise in op amp circuits, and practical applications such as instrumentation amplifiers, signal conditioning, oscillators, active filters, load and level conversions, and analog computing. There is also extensive coverage of circuit construction techniques, including circuit board design, grounding, input and output isolation, using decoupling capacitors, and frequency characteristics of passive components. The material in this book is applicable to all op amp ICs from all manufacturers, not just TI. Unlike textbook treatments of op amp theory that tend to focus on idealized op amp models and configuration, this title uses idealized models only when necessary to explain op amp theory. The bulk of this book is on real-world op amps and their applications; considerations such as thermal effects, circuit noise, circuit buffering, selection of appropriate op amps for a given application, and unexpected effects in passive components are all discussed in detail.


INDEX
  • The Op Amp’s Place In The World 
  • Review of Circuit Theory 
  • Development of the Ideal Op Amp Equations 
  • Single Supply Op Amp Design Techniques 
  • Feedback and Stability Theory 
  • Development of the Non Ideal Op Amp Equations 
  • Voltage-Feedback Op Amp Compensation 
  • Current-Feedback Op Amp Analysis 
  • Voltage- and Current-Feedback Op Amp Comparison 
  • Op Amp Noise Theory and Applications 
  • Understanding Op Amp Parameters 
  • Instrumentation: Sensors to A/D Converters 
  • Wireless Communication: Signal Conditioning for IF Sampling 
  • Interfacing D/A Converters to Loads 
  • Sine Wave Oscillators 
  • Active Filter Design Techniques 
  • Circuit Board Layout Techniques 
  • Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits 
  • Single-Supply Circuit Collection 
  • Single-Supply Op Amp Selection Guide 



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1 The Op Amp’s Place In The World.
2 Review of Circuit Theory. Introduction. Laws of Physics. Voltage Divider Rule. Current Divider Rule. Thevenin’s Theorem. Superposition. Calculation of a Saturated Transistor Circuit. Transistor Amplifier.
3 Development of the Ideal Op Amp Equations. Ideal Op Amp Assumptions. The Noninverting Op Amp. The Inverting Op Amp. The Adder. The Differential Amplifier. Complex Feedback Networks. Video Amplifiers. Capacitors. Summary.
4 Single Supply Op Amp Design Techniques. Single Supply versus Dual Supply. Circuit Analysis. Simultaneous Equations. Case 1: VOUT = +mVIN+b. Case 2: VOUT = +mVIN – b. Case 3: VOUT = –mVIN + b. Case 4: VOUT = –mVIN – b. Summary.
5 Feedback and Stability Theory. Why Study Feedback Theory?. Block Diagram Math and Manipulations. Feedback Equation and Stability. Bode Analysis of Feedback Circuits. Loop Gain Plots are the Key to Understanding Stability. The Second Order Equation and Ringing/Overshoot Predictions. References.
6 Development of the Non Ideal Op Amp Equations. Introduction. Review of the Canonical Equations. Noninverting Op Amps. Inverting Op Amps. Differential Op Amps.
7 Voltage-Feedback Op Amp Compensation. Introduction. Internal Compensation. External Compensation, Stability, and Performance. Dominant-Pole Compensation. Gain Compensation. Lead Compensation. Compensated Attenuator Applied to Op Amp. Lead-Lag Compensation. Comparison of Compensation Schemes. Conclusions.
8 Current-Feedback Op Amp Analysis. Introduction. CFA Model. Development of the Stability Equation. The Noninverting CFA. The Inverting CFA. Stability Analysis. Selection of the Feedback Resistor. Stability and Input Capacitance. Stability and Feedback Capacitance. Compensation of CF and CG. Summary.
9 Voltage- and Current-Feedback Op Amp Comparison. Introduction. Precision. Bandwidth. Stability. Impedance. Equation Comparison.
10 Op Amp Noise Theory and Applications. Introduction. Characterization. rms versus P-P Noise. Noise Floor. Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Multiple Noise Sources. Noise Units. Types of Noise. Shot Noise. Thermal Noise. Flicker Noise. Burst Noise. Avalanche Noise. Noise Colors. White Noise. Pink Noise. Red/Brown Noise. Op Amp Noise. The Noise Corner Frequency and Total Noise. The Corner Frequency. Op Amp Circuit Noise Model. Inverting Op Amp Circuit Noise. Noninverting Op Amp Circuit Noise. Differential Op Amp Circuit Noise. Summary. Putting It All Together. References.
11 Understanding Op Amp Parameters. Introduction. Operational Amplifier Parameter Glossary. Additional Parameter Information. Input Offset Voltage. Input Current. Input Common Mode Voltage Range. Differential Input Voltage Range. Maximum Output Voltage Swing. Large Signal Differential Voltage Amplification. Input Parasitic Elements. Output Impedance. Common-Mode Rejection Ratio. Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio. Supply Current. Slew Rate at Unity Gain. Equivalent Input Noise. Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise. Unity Gain Bandwidth and Phase Margin. Settling Time.
12 Instrumentation: Sensors to A/D Converters. Introduction. Transducer Types. Design Procedure. Review of the System Specifications. Reference Voltage Characterization. Transducer Characterization. ADC Characterization. Op Amp Selection. Amplifier Circuit Design. Test. Summary. References.
13 Wireless Communication: Signal Conditioning for IF Sampling. Introduction. Wireless Systems. Selection of ADCs/DACs. Factors Influencing the Choice of Op Amps. Anti-Aliasing Filters. Communication D/A Converter Reconstruction Filter. External Vref Circuits for ADCs/DACs. High-Speed Analog Input Drive Circuits. References.
14 Interfacing D/A Converters to Loads. Introduction. Load Characteristics. DC Loads. AC Loads. Understanding the D/A Converter and its Specifications. Types of D/A Converters — Understanding the Tradeoffs. The Resistor Ladder D/A Converter. The Weighted Resistor D/A Converter. The R/2R D/A Converter. The Sigma Delta D/A Converter. D/A Converter Error Budget. Accuracy versus Resolution. DC Application Error Budget. AC Application Error Budget. RF Application Error Budget. D/A Converter Errors and Parameters. DC Errors and Parameters. AC Application Errors and Parameters. Compensating For DAC Capacitance. Increasing Op Amp Buffer Amplifier Current and Voltage. Current Boosters. Voltage Boosters. Power Boosters. Single-Supply Operation and DC Offsets.
15 Sine Wave Oscillators. What is a Sine Wave Oscillator?. Requirements for Oscillation. Phase Shift in the Oscillator. Gain in the Oscillator. Active Element (Op Amp) Impact on the Oscillator. Analysis of the Oscillator Operation (Circuit). Sine Wave Oscillator Circuits. Wien Bridge Oscillator. Phase Shift Oscillator, Single Amplifier. Phase Shift Oscillator, Buffered. Bubba Oscillator. Quadrature Oscillator. Conclusion. References.
16 Active Filter Design Techniques. Introduction. Fundamentals of Low-Pass Filters. Butterworth Low-Pass FIlters. Tschebyscheff Low-Pass Filters. Bessel Low-Pass Filters. Quality Factor Q. Summary. Low-Pass Filter Design. First-Order Low-Pass Filter. Second-Order Low-Pass Filter. Higher-Order Low-Pass Filters. High-Pass Filter Design. First-Order High-Pass Filter. Second-Order High-Pass Filter. Higher-Order High-Pass Filter. Band-Pass Filter Design. Second-Order Band-Pass Filter. Fourth-Order Band-Pass Filter (Staggered Tuning). Band-Rejection Filter Design. Active Twin-T Filter. Active Wien-Robinson Filter. All-Pass Filter Design. First-Order All-Pass Filter. Second-Order All-Pass Filter. Higher-Order All-Pass Filter. Practical Design Hints. Filter Circuit Biasing. Capacitor Selection. Component Values. Op Amp Selection. Filter Coefficient Tables. References.
17 Circuit Board Layout Techniques. General Considerations. The PCB is a Component of the Op Amp Design. Prototype, Prototype, PROTOTYPE!. Noise Sources. PCB Mechanical Construction. Materials — Choosing the Right One for the Application. How Many Layers are Best?. Board Stack-Up — The Order of Layers. Grounding. The Most Important Rule: Keep Grounds Separate. Other Ground Rules. A Good Example. A Notable Exception. The Frequency Characteristics of Passive Components. Resistors. Capacitors. Inductors. Unexpected PCB Passive Components. Decoupling. Digital Circuitry — A Major Problem for Analog Circuitry. Choosing the Right Capacitor. Decoupling at the IC Level. Decoupling at the Board Level. Input and Output Isolation. Packages. Through-Hole Considerations. Surface Mount. Unused Sections. Summary. General. Board Structure. Components. Routing. Bypass. References.
18 Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits. Introduction. Dynamic Range. Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Input Common-Mode Range. Output Voltage Swing. Shutdown and Low Current Drain. Single-Supply Circuit Design. Transducer to ADC Analog Interface. DAC to Actuator Analog Interface. Comparison of Op Amps. Summary.
A Single-Supply Circuit Collection. Introduction. Boundary Conditions.
Amplifiers. Inverting Op Amp with Noninverting Positive Reference. Inverting Op Amp with Inverting Negative Reference. Inverting Op Amp with Noninverting Negative Reference. Inverting Op Amp with Inverting Positive Reference. Noninverting Op Amp with Inverting Positive Reference. Noninverting Op Amp with Noninverting Negative Reference. Noninverting Op Amp with Inverting Negative Reference. Noninverting Op Amp with Noninverting Positive Reference. Differential Amplifier. Differential Amplifier With Bias Correction. High Input Impedance Differential Amplifier. High Common-Mode Range Differential Amplifier. High-Precision Differential Amplifier. Simplified High-Precision Differential Amplifier. Variable Gain Differential Amplifier. T Network in the Feedback Loop. Buffer. Inverting AC Amplifier. Noninverting AC Amplifier. Computing Circuits. Inverting Summer. Noninverting Summer. Noninverting Summer with Buffers. Inverting Integrator. Inverting Integrator with Input Current Compensation. Inverting Integrator with Drift Compensation. Inverting Integrator with Mechanical Reset. Inverting Integrator with Electronic Reset. Inverting Integrator with Resistive Reset. Noninverting Integrator with Inverting Buffer. Noninverting Integrator Approximation. Inverting Differentiator. Inverting Differentiator with Noise Filter.
Oscillators. Basic Wien Bridge Oscillator. Wien Bridge Oscillator with Nonlinear Feedback. Wien Bridge Oscillator with AGC. Quadrature Oscillator. Classical Phase Shift Oscillator. Buffered Phase Shift Oscillator. Bubba Oscillator. Triangle Oscillator.
B Single-Supply Op Amp Selection Guide.



Amplificadores Operacionales Guía de Diseño para todo el mundo
Autores: Bruce Carter, Ron Mancini; Texas Instruments

El amplificador operacional (¿Amp Op?) Es el tipo más versátil y ampliamente utilizado de CI analógico, utilizado en los amplificadores de audio y de tensión, acondicionadores de señal, convertidores de señales, osciladores, y los sistemas analógicos de computación. Casi todos los dispositivos electrónicos utilizan al menos un amplificador operacional. Este libro se completa de Texas Instruments de nivel profesional tutorial y de referencia a la teoría del amplificador operacional y sus aplicaciones. Entre los temas tratados son fundamentales amplificador operacional física(incluidas las revisiones de la división de corriente y tensión, el teorema de Thevenin, y los modelos de transistor), el funcionamiento idealizado amplificador operacional y configuración, la retroalimentación teoría y los métodos, la operación de suministro de uno y dos, la comprensión de los parámetros del amplificador operacional, reduciendo al mínimo ruido en circuitos AMP OP, y las aplicaciones prácticas, tales como amplificadores de instrumentación, acondicionamiento de señales, osciladores, filtros activos, carga y nivel de conversiones, y la computación analógica. También hay una amplia cobertura de las técnicas de construcción del circuito, incluyendo el circuito de diseño de la placa, puesta a tierra, de entrada y salida de aislamiento, utilizando condensadores de desacoplamiento, y características de la frecuencia de los componentes pasivos. El material de este libro es aplicable a todos los CI amplificador operacional de todos los fabricantes, no sólo en TI. A diferencia de los tratamientos de libros de texto de la teoría de amplificadores operacionales que tienden a centrarse en los modelos idealizados amplificador operacional y configuración, este título utiliza modelos idealizados sólo cuando sea necesario para explicar la teoría de amplificador operacional. La mayor parte de este libro es en amplificadores operacionales en el mundo real y sus aplicaciones; consideraciones tales como los efectos térmicos, el ruido del circuito, circuito de amortiguación, la selección de los amplificadores operacionales adecuados para una aplicación dada, y los efectos inesperados en componentes pasivos son discutidos en detalle.

ÍNDICE
  • El amplificador operacional en el mundo
  • Revisión de la Teoría de Circuitos
  • Desarrollo de las ecuaciones Amp Op Ideal
  • Única fuente Op Amp Técnicas de Diseño
  • Comentarios y teoría de la estabilidad
  • El desarrollo de las ecuaciones no Ideal Op Amp
  • Voltaje Comentarios Op Amp Compensación
  • Corriente Comentarios Op Amp Análisis
  • De voltaje y corriente de opinión y comentarios Op Amp Comparativa
  • Op Amp Teoría y Aplicaciones de ruido
  • Comprensión Op Amp parámetros
  • Instrumentación: Sensores para convertidores A / D
  • Comunicación inalámbrica: Acondicionamiento de Señal de Muestreo IF
  • Interfaz conversores D / A a las cargas
  • Los osciladores de onda sinusoidal
  • Técnicas de diseño de filtro activo
  • Placa de circuitos técnicas de diseño
  • El diseño de circuitos de baja tensión de amplificador operacional
  • Un solo Circuito de fuente de Colección
  • Una sola fuente Op Amp Guía de Selección





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